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Syllabus : Zoology


Unified Syllabus of Zoology for U.P.State Universities (B.Sc. I, II, & III year)

Following Major title of papers of B.Sc. I, II, and III were finalized with their contents:

Theory Paper’s duration is of Three hours and duration of practicals is Four hours

B.Sc. I

 

Papers

 

Title of paper

 

Max.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marks

 

 

Paper I

 

Lower Non Chordata (Protozoa- Helminths)

 

50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paper II

 

Higher Non Chordata (Annelida-

 

50

 

 

 

 

Echinodermata)

 

 

 

 

Paper III

 

Cell Biology and Genetics

 

50

 

 






 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practical

 

Practical Syllabus based on theory papers

 

50






 

 

 

B.Sc. II

 

Papers

 

Title of paper

 

Max.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marks

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paper I

 

Chordata

 

50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paper II

 

Animal distribution, Evolution and

 

50

 

 

 

 

Developmental Biology

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paper III

 

Physiology and Biochemistry

 

50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practical

 

Practical Syllabus based on theory papers

 

50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.Sc. III

 

Papers

 

Title of paper

 

Max.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marks

 

 

Paper I

 

Applied and Economic Zoology

 

75

 





 

 

 

Paper II

 

Biotechnology, Immunology, Biological Tools

 

75

 

 

 

 

& Techniques and Biostatistics

 

 

 

 

Paper III

 

Ecology, Microbiology, Animal Behavior,

 

75

 

 

 

 

Pollution and Toxicology

 

 

 

 

 




 

 

 

Practical

 

Practical Syllabus based on theory papers

 

75

1


Unified Syllabus of Zoology for U.P.State Universities Subject- Zoology

B.Sc. - First Year

Practical

1-

Dissection (Major)

12 Marks

2-

Dissection (Minor)

05 Marks

3-

One Temporary Mount

03 Marks

4-

One Permanent Mount

05 Marks

5-

Cytology & Genetics Preparation/Prepared slides

05 Marks

5-

Identify and Comment upon spots (1-10)

10 Marks

6-

Viva-Voce

05 Marks

7-

Practical class record

05 Marks

 

Total

50

 

Marks

 

Unified Syllabus of Zoology for U.P.State Universities

2

Subject- Zoology

B.Sc. -Second Year

Practical

1-

Dissection (Major)

10 Marks

2-

Permanent Mount

05 Marks

3-

Comment upon Physiology Apparatus

05 Marks

4-

(i) Suitable preparation of Hemin crystals from the blood

05 Marks

 

(ii) Detect the Sugar /albumin / acetone from urine sample

 

5-

Stained Preparation of (i) Striped or Unstriped muscles

05 Marks

 

(ii) Cartilage (hand cut Section)

 

 

(iii) Blood film/Aereolar tissue

 

5-

Identify and Comment upon spots (1-10)

10 Marks

6-

Viva-Voce

05 Marks

7-

Practical class record

05 Marks

 

Total

50

 

Marks

 

Unified Syllabus of Zoology for U.P.State Universities

3

Subject- Zoology

B.Sc. - Third Year

Practical

1-

Dissection (Major)

12 Marks

2-

Permanent Mounting

06 Marks

3-

Temporary Mounting

05 Marks

4-

Identify and Comment upon Spots (1-8)

16 Marks

5-

Economic Zoology (Comments on a suitable

 

 

Specimen/ life cycle of Silk worm, Honey bee,

 

 

Lac insect & Food Fishes) (02)

06 Marks

6-

Biological Tools and Techniques (Comment)

06 Marks

7-

Biostat / Microbiology / Immunology / Behavior

06 Marks

8-

Ecology/ Pollution/ Toxicology (Exercise or Comment

06 Marks

9-

Viva-voce

06 Marks

10- Practical Class record / Project / Collection

06 Marks

Total 75

Marks

4

Unified Syllabus of Zoology for U.P. State Universities B.Sc. Part I, II & III

There will be three written papers and one practical examination.

Question No. 1 in each class will be compulsory & comprehensive based on units I to IV and of short Answer type. This will carry 40% of total marks (i.e. 20 marks in I & II year and 30 marks in III year). There will be two questions from each unit carrying 60% of the marks, of which one question from each unit has to be attempted.

B.Sc. Part I

Paper I- Lower Non Chordata (Protozoa to Helminths)

The habits, morphology, physiology, reproduction, development (in outline) and classification of the following groups of animals including a detailed study of the types given in each:

 

Unit-I

Protozoa

- Euglena, Monocystis and Paramecium.

 

Unit-II

Porifera

- Sycon

 

Unit-III

Coelenterata

- Obelia and Aurelia

Ctenophora

- Salient features

 

Unit-IV

Platyhelminthes

- Fasciola (liver fluke) and Taenia (tape worm)

Nematehelminthes - Ancylostoma (hook worm)

Paper II- Higher Non Chordata (Annelida to Echinodermata)

The habits, morphology, physiology, reproduction, development (in outline) and classification of the following groups of animals including a detailed study of the types given in each:

 

Unit-I

Annelida

- Nereis

 

Unit-II

Arthropoda

- Palaemon (prawn)

 

Unit-III

Mollusca

-Pila (apple-snail)

 

Unit-IV

Echinodermata -Pentaceros (excluding development)

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Paper III- Cell Biology & Genetics

Unit-I

Cell Biology I: Structure and function of cell, Ultra structure of Plasma membrane

Unit-II

Cell Biology II: Structure and function of cell organelles with special emphasis on mitochondria, golgi bodies, nucleus, ribosome and endoplasmic reticulum.

Unit-III

Genetics-I: Structure of Chromosomes, Watson & Crick Model of DNA, Differences between DNA & RNA, Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis. Mendel’s principles of heredity on chromosomal basis, Monohybrid cross, test cross, dihybrid cross, back cross incomplete dominance, Multiple Alleles, Blood group inheritance. Linkage and crossing over, interaction of genes. The role of DNA in heredity.

Unit-IV

Genetics II: Sex determination, sex differentiation, prenatal detection of genetic diseases (amniocentesis), Sex-linked characters, Genetic diseases and abnormalities, chromosomal aberrations, Eugenics.

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B.Sc. Part I

ZOOLOGY PRACTICAL SYLLABUS

PROTOZOA

(a)Amoeba : Examination of culture. Prepared Slide Amoeba proteus and A. verrucosa.

(b)Euglena : Culture examination for Euglena. Prepared slides.

(c)Monocystis : Examination of contents of seminal vesicles of Pheretima or Eutyphoeus for different life- history stages and permanent preparation. Prepared slides.

(d)

Plasmodium : Preparation of blood film (Leishmen’s stain). Prepared slides showing

 

the parasites.

(e)Paramecium

Culture examination.

(f)Demonstration of ciliary movements in Paramecium.

Addition to mucilage to restrain active movement. Treatment with Methyl green for staining. Feeding experiment with Congo Red and Yeast. Trichocysts (discharged), Prepared slides for structure, binary division and conjugation.

(g)Examination of pond water for different kinds of protozoa with special reference to

Arcella and Vorticella.

(h)Study of prepared slides :

Polystomella, Gregarina, Trypanosoma and Noctiluca.

( i ) Examination of rectal protozoans Opalina, Balantidium and Nyctotherus.

PORIFERA

(a)Sycon

General characters

Spicules glycerine preparation.

Transverse and longitudinal sections-prepared slides.

(b)Gemmule of Spongilla permanent preparation.

(c)Different kinds of spnge spicules and sponging fibres of Euspongia-prepared slides.

(d)Euplectella (Venus,s flower-basket) Spongilla (fresh-water sponge), Euspongia (bath sponge).

COELENTERATA

(a)Hydra

Live specimens.

Prepared slides of entire specimens.

Longitudinal and transverse sections-prepared slides.

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(b)Obelia

Clolony-prepared slide. Medusa-prepared slide.

(c)Aurelia

General morphology. Tentaculocyst-prepared slide.

Prepared slides and models of life-history stages.

(d)Physalia (Portguese man of war), Corallium (red coral), Fungia (Mushroom coral), Madrepora (staghom coral),

Pennatula (sea pen), Sagartia of Metridium (sea anaemone)

PLATHYHELMINTHES :

(a)Fasciola

Specimens in situ and prepared slides. Transverse sections and prepared slides. Larval forms-prepared slides.

(b)Taenia : Prepared slides of scolex, mature and gravid proglottids and transverse section of mature proglottid.

(c)Planaria, Polystomum, Paramphistomum, Schistosma, Echinococcus and Dipylidium

Cysticercus (Bladder worm) and Cysticercoid.

(d)Examination of type worms of pigeon of fowl in situ

(e)Permanent preparation of mature and gravid proglottids of Cotugnia and Raellietina. :

NEMATHELMINTHES

(a)Ascaris

External characters.

Dissected specimens of male of female.

Transverse section of male and female-prepared slides.

(b)Ascaris lumbricoides (from man) specimens Enterobius vermicularisi (from man). Ancylostoma duodenale (from man) prepared slides.

ANNELIDA

(a)Nereis

External characters. Dissected specimens.

Parapodium-permanent preparation. Transverse sections-prepared slides.

(b)Pheretima

External characters. Dissection.

Glycerine preparations of setae in situ and brain. Permanent preparations of ovary and septal nephridia.

Prepared slides of transverse section through various regions.

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(c)Heteronereis, Arenicola, Aphrodite, Eutypoeus, Dero, Branchellion, Haemadipsa, Bonellia (female).

ARTHROPODA

(a)Palaemon

External characters; Examination of appendages.

Dissections.

Glycerine preparation of hastate plate.

Permanent and glycerine preparations of statocysts.

(b)Periplaneta

External characters. Differences between nmale and female. Dissections.

Cirulation of blood in the wing of cockroach.

Glycerine preparation of mouth appendages, salivary glands and trachea. Permanent preparations of salivary glands, Malpighian tubules, ovaries and testes.

(c)Anopheles and Cules

Glycerine preparation of mouth parts of male and female. Wings-prepared slides. Life history-prepared slides.

Difference between Anopheles and Culex

(d)Musca

External characters.

Glycerine preparation of proboscis

(e)Daphnia, Cyclops, Balanus, Eupagurus (hermit crab) Scylla (crab), Sacculina (on crab). Larval forms Nauplius, Zoaea), Lepisma (Silver fish), Schistocerca (locust), Odontotermes

(white ant), Cimex (bed bug), Pediculus (louse), Papilio (butterfly), Bombyx (Silk moth), Apis (honey- bee), Polistes (wasp), Camponotus (Black ant), Xenopsylla (rat flea), or Ctenocephalus (dog flea), Thyroglutus (millipede), Scolopendra (centipede). Lycosa (wolf-spider), Lxodes (trick), Limulus (King carb).

MOLLUSCA

(a)Lamellidens

External characters Dissection

Permanent preparations of gill lamella.

Transverse section through middle region of body-prepared slides.

Glochidium (larva) prepared slides.

(b)Pila

External characters. Dissection.

Permanent preparations of gill lamella and osphradium.

(c)Chiton, Teredo, Turbinellai (Shankh), Laevicaulis (slug), Doris, Aplysia, Dentalium Nautilus, Sepia and Margaritifera (Pearl Oyster).

9

ECHINODERMATA

(a)Pentaceros:

External characters Dissected specimens. Pedicellaria-prepared slides.

Transverse section of arm-prepared slide.

(b)Echinus (Sea urchin), Ophiothrix (brittle star), Holothuria (sea cucumber) and Antedon (feather star).

CYTOLOGY

(a)Cell-Structure – Prepared slides

(b)Cell Division – Prepared slides

(c)Preparation of giant chromosomes

(d)Preparation of onion root tip for the stages of mitosis

10

B.Sc. Part II (THEORY) Zoology

There will be three written papers and one practical examination. The following courses are prescribed.

Paper I: Chordata

Unit- I

Hemichordata: Classification and detailed study (habit, morphology, anatomy, physiology and development) of Balanoglossus

Cephalochordata: Classification and detailed study (habit, morphology, anatomy and physiology) of Branchiostoma (Amphioxus).

Unit -II

Urochordata: Classification and detailed study (habit, morphology, anatomy, physiology and post embryonic development) of Herdmania

Unit-III

Classification of different classes of vertebrates (Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia,) up to order with characters and examples. Poisonous and non poisonous snakes and biting mechanism. Neoteny

Unit-IV

Classification of different classes of vertebrates (Aves and Mammalian) up to order with characters and examples. Dentition in mammals.

Paper II: Animal distribution, Evolution and Developmental Biology

Unit-I

Animal distribution: Geological and geographical distribution with their characteristic fauna; fossils.

Unit-II

Origin of Life, concept of species (classical & modern concept)

Evolution: Evidences (including physiological and serological); Theories of evolution (including Neo-Lamarckism, Darwin-Wallace theory of natural selection, Neo-Darwinism, Modern synthetic theory). Evolution of Man. Mutation

Unit-III

Developmental Biology I:Aims and scope of Developmental Biology.

Gametogenesis, Fertilization, Egg: structure and types.

Types & patterns of cleavage

11

Unit-IV

Developmental Biology II: Process of Blastulation & Gastrulation. Fate Map. Development of Chick up to formation of Primitive streak and mammal (in out line) Extra embryonic membranes of chick.

Placentation and types of Placenta.

Paper III: Physiology and Biochemistry

General physiology (in outline) with special reference to mammals

Unit-I

Physiology of digestion, respiration, and blood and circulation

Unit-II

Physiology of excretion and osmoregulation, neural transmission, muscles

Unit-III

Physiology of endocrine system, thermoregulation

Unit-IV

General chemistry and classification of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins; Enzymes

12

B.Sc. Part II

ZOOLOGY PRACTICAL SYLLABUS

Urochordata

(a)Herdmania

(i)External characters

(ii)Dissection

(iii)(a) Permanent preparation of branchial wall

(b) Section of test and glycerine prepration of spicules.

Glycerine and permanent prepration on neural gland complex ( neural gland, nerve ganglion and dorsal tubrcele).

(iv)Larva and metamorphosis- prepared slides.

(b)(i) Thaliacea : Pyrosoma, Doliolum

(ii) Larvacea : Oikopleura .

Cephalochordata

Branchistoma ( Amphioxus )

(i)General features

(ii)(a) Permanent prepration of the pharyngeal wall

(b) Oral hood and velum- prepared slides

(c ) Transverse section through the body – prepared slides.

(d) Models illustrating development

Cyclostomata

Petromyzon ( Lamprey ) - External characters

Chondrichthyes

(a)Fish

(i)External characters

(ii)Exo-skeleton Glycerine and permanent preparation of placoid scales

(iii)Myotomes

(iv)Endoskeleton

(1)Axial skeleton

(a)skull

(b)Visceral Skeleton

(c)Vertebral column

(2)Appendicular skeleton

(a)Pectoral girdle and fins

(b)Pelvic girdle, fins and claspers

(c)Median fins

(v)Dissection

(a)Digestive system

Examination of the folds of stomach and “ scroll valve”

(b)Vascular system

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Heart, ventral aorta, dorsal aorta, arterial arches ( afferent and efferent ) ( c) Gills

(d)Urinogenital system

(e)Nervous system : Cranial nerves

(f)Internal ear

(g)Eye muscles

(h)Permanent preparation of ampullae of Lorenzini

(i)Section through various regions of the body of adult and embryo

(j)Embryo with yolk-sac placenta

(b)Pritis ( Saw fish ), Astrape ( Indian electric ray ) Chimaera ( rabbit fish ) Slide showing development of placoid scales.

Osteichthyles

(a)Labeo rohita ( rohu )- General morphology and dissected specimen.

(b)Acipenser (sturgeon ), Lepiodosteous ( gar-pike ), Hippocampus ( sea hourse) Antennarius ( Indian angler ), Angulla (eel), Pleuronectes ( sole ), Exocoetus ( flying fish ), Clarius ( cat fish ), Anabas ( climbing perch ) and Neoceratodus ( lungfish ).

(c)Different kinds of scales- prepared slides

Amphibia

(a)Rana tigrina ( The Indian bull-frog ) Development of frog from modles

(b)Urodela :

Necturus, Ambystoma and Axolotal larva

(c)Anura :

Bufo, Rhacophorus (tree frog), Alytes (midwife toad).

(d)Gymnophiona : Ichthyopnis

Reptillia

(a)Varanus

(i)External characters

(ii)Skeleton

(1)Axial Skeleton

(a)Skull

(b)Vertebral column (c ) Ribs and sternum

(2)Appendicular Skeleton

(a)Pectoral girdle and fore-limb.

(b)Pelvic girdle and hind-limb.

(b) Lacertilla

Varanus ( Indian monitor ), Holoderma ( poisonous lizard )

Hemidactylus (wall lizard ),Chamaeleon ( garden lizard ) Draco

(flying lizard ).

(c ) Ophidia

Difference between poisonous and non-poisonous snakes, Naja (cobara), Vipera ( viper), Typhlops ( burrowing snake ) and Python. Biting mechanism of a poisonous snake (model).

(d)Chelonia : Derman armature

(e)Crocodilia : Difference between Alligator, Crocodile and Gavialis.

(f) Extinct reptiles, Models (five )

Dimetrodon, Diplodocus, Pteranodon, Tyrannosaurus and lchthyosaurus

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Aves

(A)Columba livia intennedia (pigeon)

(i)Esternal Characters. Structure of Feather. Varieties of feathers. Developments of feather-prepared slide.

(ii)Skeleton of fowl Axial skeleton:

(a)Skull

(b)Vertebral column

(c)Ribs and sternum

(2)Appendicular skeleton.

(a)Pectoral girdle and fore-limb

(b)Pelivic girdle and hind-limb.

(B)(i) Archaeornithes-Archaeopteryx (cast)

(ii)Neornithes:

(a)Palaeognathae: Struthio (ostrich);

(b)Neognathae: Gallus (fowl), Anser duck, Corvus (crow) , Psuttacuka

(parrot) and Pavo (peacock). Perching mechanism: Model Skulls and Beaks of Birds.

Feet of birds: Models

(C) Embryonic membrances-whole mount of 72 hour’s chick embryo

Mammalia

(A)(i) Prototheria: Ornithorhynchus (Platypus)

(ii)Metatheria : Macropus (Kangaroo).

(iii)Eutheria :

(a)Edentata: Dasypus (Armadillo)

(b)Pholidota: Manis (Scaly ant-eater).

(c)Cetacea: Platanista (Ganges dolphin).

(d)Perissodactyla: Equus cabalus (horse), Equus vulgaris (ass), Equus zebra

(zebra), Rhinoceros unicornis (rhinoceros).

(e)Artictyla: Camelus dromedaries (A rabian camel), Giraffa camelopardalis

(giraffe) Box (ox), Ovis (sheep), Capra (goat), Cervus (deer), Sus (dog).

(f)Proboscidea: Elephas indicus (elephant).

(g)Carnivora: Felis domesticus (Cat), Panthera leo (lion), Acinonyx tigris

(Cheetah), Canis familiari (dog), Ursus (bear) Hyaena (hyanea), Phoca (seal)

(h)Rodentia: Mus (domestic rat), Hystrix (Porcupine)

(i)Lagomorpha: Lepus and Oryctolagus (hare and rabbit)

(j)Insectivora: Erinaceus (hedge-hog), Crocidura (chhachhundar)

(k)Chiroptera: Pteropus (Flying-fox).

(l)Primates: Macaca (rhesus monkey), Hylobates (gibbon), Simia (Orang- utan), Anthropo pithecus (chimpanzee), Gorilla, Homo sapiens (man).

15

Histology

(i)Tissues: Preparation of the following

(a)Epithelia:

(i)Squamous (ii) Ciliated and (iii) Stratified

(b)Muscular:

(i)Striped muscles (ii) Unstriped muscles.

(c)

Connective

(i)

Areolar tissue (ii) Tendon the leg muscles of frog (tease and examine in

 

glycerine)

(ii)

Adipose tissue from insect and frog (iv) cartilage (free hand sections of frogs

 

hyoid and suprascapula, train with haematoxyline and (v) Bone (Decalcified).

(d)Blood; Preparation of Vertebrate blood film, stain with Leishmann’s stain.

(e)Nervous: Neurons

(f)Histology of various organs-prepared slides.

Physiology

(i)Experiments to be performed by candidates: Test for amylase. Osmolarity of blood, Hemin crystals and test for sugar and acetone in urine Determination of haemoglobin % in blood sample (s).

(ii)Detection of amino acids in blood of an animal by paper chromatography.

General :

Candidates will be required, to show knowledge of the method of microscopic techniques and to examine, describe or dissect the types prescribed. Candidates will also be required to submit their notebooks containing a complete record of laboratory work initiated and dated by the teacher for the determination of result of examination.

16

B. Sc. Part III (THEORY) Zoology

There will be three written papers and one practical examination. The following courses are prescribed.

PAPER-I Applied and Economic Zoology

Unit-I

Parasitology:

(a) Structure, life cycle, pathogenicity, including diseases, causes, symptoms and control of the following parasites of domestic animals and humans: Trypanosoma, Giardia and Wuchereria,

Unit-II

Vectors and pests: Life cycle and their control of following pests:

Gundhi bug, Sugarcane leafhopper, Rodents.

Termites and Mosquitoes and their control

Unit-III

Animal breeding and culture: Aquaculture, Pisciculture, Poultry, Sericulture, Apiculture, Lac-culture.

Unit-IV

Wild Life of India: Endangered species. Important sanctuaries; national parks of India; Different projects launched for the preservation of animal species; in-situ and ex-situ conservation of wild life.

PAPER-II Biotechnology, Immunology, Biological Tools and Techniques and Biostatistics

Unit-I

Biotechnology: Genetic Engineering (concept and recombinant DNA technology) and its application in agriculture & medical areas and energy production. Biotechnology of food- processing, pharmaceuticals (e.g. use of microbes in insulin production) and fermentation.

Unit-II

Immunology. Concepts of immunity, types of immunity, Antigen and Antibodies, vaccines of different diseases and immunological reactions.

17

Unit-III

Biological Tools and Techniques: Principles and uses of instruments: pH Meter, Calorimeter, Microtome, Spectrophotometer & Centrifuge.

Microscopy (light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy) Chromatography and Electrophoresis.

Unit-IV

Biostatistics: Sampling, Measures of central tendency (mean, median and Mode) and dispersion (variance, standard deviation and standard error); Correlation and Regression

PAPER-III Ecology, Microbiology Animal Behavior and Pollution and Toxicology.

Unit- I

Ecology: Ecosystem: Concept, components, fundamental operations, energy flow, food-chain, foodwebs and trophic levels, ecological niche, abiotic and biotic factors. Population: Characteristics and regulation. Ecological succession. Adaptation: Aquatic, terrestrial, aerial and arboreal.

Unit-II

Microbiology: Morphology, physiology and infection (outline) of bacteria and viruses. Bacterial and viral diseases.

Unit-III

Animal Behavior: Introduction to Ethology, Patterns of behavior (taxes, reflexes, instinct and motivation); biorhythms; learning and memory, Migration of fishes & birds.

Unit-IV

Pollution and Toxicology: Concept, sources, types (air, water, soil, noise & radiation), and control of environmental pollution. Exposure of toxicants (routes of exposure, and duration and frequency of exposure); dose -response relationship categories of toxic effects.

.

:

18

B.Sc. Part III

ZOOLOGY PRACTICAL SYLLABUS

Permanent Preparation of: Euglena, Paramecium and rectal protozoans from frog.

Stool examination for different intestinal parasites.

Study of prepared slides/ specimens of Entamoeba, Giardia, Leishmania, Trypanosoma,

Plasmodium, Fasciola, Cotugnia, Taenia, Rallietina, Polystoma Paramphistomum, Schistosoma, Echinococcus, Dipylidium, Enterobius, Ascaris and Ancylostoma;

Permanent Preparation of Cimex (bed bug)/ Pediculus (Louse), Haematopinus (cattle louse), fresh water annelids, arthropods; and soil arthropods.

Larval stages of helminths and arthropods.

Permanent mount of wings, mouth parts and developmental stages of mosquito and house fly. Permanent preparation of ticks/ mites, abdominal gills of aquatid insects viz. Chironomus larva, dragonfly and mayfly nymphs, preparation of antenna of housefly.

Collection and identification of pests.

Life history of silkworm, honeybee and lac insect.

Different types of important edible fishes of India.

Prepared slides of plant nematodes.

Demonstration of counting of cells (blood and protozoan) by haemocytometer, haemoglobinometer, pH meter, Colorimeter

Microbiological Techniques: Media Preparation and sterilization, inoculation and Monitoring.

Study of an aquatic ecosystem, its biotic components and food chain.

Preparation of chromosomes, Test for carbohydrate Photochemical demonstration of proteins and lipids, using hand sections using hand sections, endocrine glands (Neurosecretory cells) of cockroach.

Demonstration of developmental stages of chick.

Project Report/ model chart making.

Dissections :

Cockroach : Central nervous system

Wallago : Afferent and efferent branchial vessels, Cranial nerves, Weberian ossicles.

Practical exercises based on Biostatistics, Microbiology, Immunology, Biotechnology, Animal Behavior, Pollution & Toxicology.

19

Recommendation

The unified syllabus is well-knit and is passed as such. However, following minor corrections should be added;

1. B.Sc. Part I

Paper I- Lower nonchordata (Protozoa -Helminthes ).- The habits, morphology, physiology reproduction, development (in outline) and classification upto orders of the following groups of animals-

Unit-I : Protozoa- Euglena and Paramecium Unit-II : Sycon, Canal system in sponges. Rest as such.

Paper II- Higher Non-chordate (Annelida to Echinodermata)- The habits, morphology, physiology, reproduction, development (in outline) and classification upto orders of the following groups of animals.

Unit-I : Annelida- Hirudeniaria Unit-II : as such

Unit-III :as such

Unit-IV : Echinodermata-Asterias (sea-star) (excluding development)

Paper III- Call Biology & Genetics

Unit-I : Cell Biology : Structure and function of cell, ultra structure and function of plasma membrane.

Unit-II : as such

Unit-III : Differences between DNA & RNA, cell division should be like this differences between DNA, & RNA, cell cycle and cell division. Rest as such.

Unit-IV : Geneties II Ist 2 times as such. + Genetic diseases and syndromes, structural and numerical aberrations- Deficiency duplication, translocation, inversion, euploidy, aneuploidy, monosomic, nullisomic, trisomic etc.

Last Eugenics- should be cancelled.

B.Sc. II

Paper I- as such Paper II- as such

Paper II- Physiology and Biochemistry

Unit -I : Physiology of digestion, Breathing and internal respiration and blood: strucutre, junction and clotting, physiology of heart beat.

Unit-II : as such

Unit-III: as such

Unit-IV: as such

B.Sc. III

Paper I- Applied & Economic zoology

Unit-I : Parasitology-Giaradia should be cancelled. Rest as such. Unit-II: as such

Unit-III: as such

Unit IV: Wild life of India: Endanagered species. Important sanctuaries, national parks, biosphere reserves, hot spots of India. Different projects.... as such.

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Paper II

Unit-I :as such

Unit-II :as such

Unit-III : pH meter, colorimeter. Rest as such

Unit IV :In the second line:- correlation and Regression can be cancelled. Graphical representation of data- may be added.

Paper III

Unit-I :as such Unit-II :as such Unit- III :as such

Unit-IV :In the last line- categories of toxic effects- Teratogenic, careinogenic and mutagenic effects, Antidotes.

Practical Syllabus is passed as such.


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