Syllabus Of Chemistry For Graduate & Post Graduate Classes Modified according to U.G.C. Model Curriculum to be enforced w.e.f ACADEMIC SESSION 2011-2012 MEMBERS OF BOARD OF STUDY
B.Sc. Part - I
60 Hrs (2 Hrs/week),
Max. Marks: 50
I Atomic Structure 6 Hrs
Idea of de-Broglie matter waves, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, atomic orbitals, Schrodinger wave equation, significance of and 2, quantum numbers, radial and angular wave functions and probability distribution curves, shapes of s, p, d orbitals. Aufbau and Pauli exclusion principles. Hund’s multiplicity rule. Electronic configurations of the elements, effective nuclear charge. II Periodic Properties 6 Hrs Atomic and ionic, radii, ionization energy, electron affinity and eletronegativity – definition, methods of determination or evaluation, trends in periodic table and applications in predicting and explaining the chemical behaviour. III Chemical Bonding 20 Hrs (a) Covalent Bond – Valence bond theory and its limitations, directional characteristics of covalent bond, various types of hybridization and shapes of simple inorganic molecules and ions, Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory to NH3, H3O+, SF4, ClF3 , ICl2 and H2O. MO theory, homonuclear and heteronuclear (CO and NO) diatomic molecules, multicentre bonding in electron deficient, molecules bond strength and bond energy, percentage ionic character form dipole moment and electronegativity difference. (b) Ionic Solids – Ionic structures, radius ratio effect and coordination number, limitation of radius ratio rule, lattice defects, semiconductors, lattice energy and Born-Haber cycle, solvation energy and solubility of ionic solids, polarizing power and polarisability of ions, Fajan’s rule. Metallic bond-free electron, valence bond and bond theories. (c) Weak Interactions – Hydrogen bonding, van der Waals forces IV s- Block Elements 6 Hrs Comparative study, diagonal relationships, salient features of hydrides, solvation and complexation tendencies including their function in biosystems, an introduction to alkyls and aryls.
V p- Block Elements 20 Hrs
Comparative study (including diagonal relationship) of groups 13-17 elements. Compounds like hydrides, oxides, oxyacids and halides of groups 13-16, hydrides of boron-diborane and higher boranes, borazine, borohydrides, fullerenes, carbides, fluorocabons, silicates (structural principle), tetrasulphur tetranitride, basic properties of halogens, interhalogens and polyhalides.
VI ChemiStry of Noble Gases 3 Hrs
Chemical properties of the noble gases. Chemistry of xenon, structure and bonding in xenon compounds.
Organic Chemistry 60 Hrs (2 Hrs/week), Max. Marks: 50
I Structure and Bonding 5 Hrs Hybridization, bond lengths and bond angles, bond energy, localized and delocallzed chemical bond, van der Waals interactions, inclusion compounds, clatherates, charge transfer complexes, resonance, hyperconjugation, aromaticity, inductive and field effects, hydrogen bonding.
II Mechanism of Organic Reactions 8 Hrs
Curved arrow notation, drawing electron movements with arrows, half-headed and double- headed arrows, homolytic and heterolytic bond breaking. Types of reagents-electrophiles and nucleophiles. Types of organic reactions. Energy considerations. Reactive intermediates – carbocations, carbanios, free radicals, carbenes, arynes and niterenes (with examples). Assigning formal charges on intrermediates and other ionic species. Methods of determination of reaction mechanism (product analysis, intermediates, isotope effects, kinetic and stereochemical studies).
III Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds 12 Hrs Concept of isomerism. Types of isomerism. Optical isomerism – elements of symmetry. Molecular chirality, enantiomers. Stereogenic centre, optical activity, properties of enantiomers, chiral and achiral molecules with two stereogenic centres, diastereomers, threo and erythro diastereomers, meso compounds, resolution of enantiomers, inversion, retention and racemizaton. Relative absolute configuration, sequence rules, D & L and R & S
systems of nomenclature.
Geometric isomerism – determination of configuration of geometric isomers. E & Z system of nomenclature, geometric
isomerism in oximes and alicyclic compounds. Conformational isomerism – conformational analysis of ethane and
n-butane;conformations of cyclohexane, axial and equatorial bonds, conformation of mono substituted cyclohexane derivatives.
Newman projection and Sawhorse formulae, Fischer and flying wedge formulae.
Difference between configuration and conformation.
IV Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 7 Hrs
IUPAC nomenclature of branched and unbranched alkanes, the alkyl group, classification of carbon atoms in alkanes. Isomerism in alkanes, sources, methods of formation (with special reference to Wurtz reaction, Kolbe reaction, Corey-House reaction and decarboxylation of carboxylic acids), physical and chemical
reactions of alkanes.
Mecheanism of free radical halogenation of alkanes: orientation, reactivity and selectivity. Cycloalkanes – nomenclature, methods of formation, chemical, Baeyer’s strain theory and its limitations. Ring strain in small rings (cyclopropane and cyclobutane), theory of strainless rings, The case of cyclopropance ring: banana bonds.
V Alkenes, Cycloalkenes, Dienes and Alkynes 12 Hrs Nomenclature of alkenes, methods of formation, mechanisms of dehydration of alcohols and dehydrohagenation of alkyl halides, regioselectivity in alcohol dehydration. The Saytzeff rule, Hofmann elimination, physical properties and relative stabilities of alkenes. Chemical reactions of alkenes – mechanisms involved in hydrogenation, electrophilic and free radical additions,
Markownikoff’s rule, hydroboration – oxidation, oxymercurationreduction.
Epoxidation, ozonolysis, hydration, hydroxylation and oxidation with KMnO4 Polymerization of alkenes. Substitution at
the allylic and vinylic positions of alkenes. Industrial applications of ethylene and propene. Methods of formation, conformation and chemical reactions of cycloalkenes. Nomenclature and classification of dienes: isolated, conjugated and
cumulated dienes. Structure of allenes and butadiene, methods of formation, polymerization. Chemical reaction – 1, 2 and 1, 4 additions, Diels-Alder reaction. Nomenclature, structure and bonding in alkynes. Methods of formation. Chemical reactions of alkynes, acidity of alkynes. Mechanism of electrophilic and nucleophilic addition reactions, hydroboration-oxidation, metal-ammonia reductions, oxidation and polymezation.
VI Arenes and Aromaticity 12 Hrs Nomenclature of benzene derivatioves. The aryl group. Aromatic nucleus and side chain. Structure of benzene: molecular formula and Kekule strcture. Stability and carbon-carbon bond lengths of benzene, resonance structure, MO picture. Aromaticity: the Huckel rule, aromatic ions. Aromatic electrophilic substitution – general pattern of the mechanism, role s − and p − complexes. Mechansim of nitration, halogenation, sulphonation, mercuration and Friedel- Crafts reaction. Energy profile diagrams. Activating and deactivating substituents, orientation and ortho/para ratio. Side chain reactions of benzene derivatives. Brich reduction. Methods of formation and chemical reactions of alkylbenzenes, alkynylbenzenes and biphenyl.
VII Alkyl and Aryl Halides 8 Hrs Nomenclature and classes of alkyl halides, methods of formation, chemical reactions. Mechanisms of nucleophilic substitution reactions of alkyl haides, SN2 and SN1 reactions with energy profile diagrams. Plyhalogen compounds: chloroform, carbon tetrachloride. Methods of formation of aryl halides, nuclear and side chain reaction. The addition- elimination and the eliminationaddition mechanisms of nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions. Relative reactivities of alkyl, vinyl and aryl halides and halides. Synthesis and uses of DDT and BHC.
Organic Chemistry 60 Hrs (2 Hrs/week), Max. Marks: 50
I Mathematical Concepts and Computers 16 Hrs
(A) Mathematical Concepts
Logarithmic relations, curve sketching, linear graphs and calculation of slopes. Differentiation of functions like kx, ex, xn, Sin x, log x, maxima and minima, partial differentiation and reciprocity relations. Integration of some useful/relevant functions; permutations and combinations. Factorials. Probability.
General introduction to computer, different components of a computer, hardware and software, input-output devices; binary numbers and arithmetic: introduction to computer languages. Programming, operation systems.
II Gaseous States 8 Hrs
Postulates of kinetic theory of gases, deviation from ideal behavior, vander Waals equation of state. Critical Phenomena: PV isotherms of real gases, continuity of states, the isotherms of van der Waals equation, relationship between critical constants and van der Waals equation, relationship between critical constants and van der Waals constants. The law of corresponding states. Reduced equation of state. Molecular velocities: Root mean square, average and most probable velocities, Qualitative discussion of the Maxwell’s distribution of molecular velocities, collision number, mean free path and collision diameter. Liquification of gases (based on Joule- Thomson effect).
III Liquid State 6 Hrs
Intermolecular forces, structure of liquids (a qualitative description). Structural differences between solids, liquids and
gases. Liquid crystals: Difference between liquid crystal, solid and liquid. Classification, structure of nematic and cholestric phases. Thermography and seven segment cell.
IV Solid State 11 Hrs
Definition of space lattice, unit cell. Laws of crystallography – (i) Law of constancy of interfacial angles (ii) Law of rationality of indices (iii) Law of symmetry. Symmetry elements in crystals. Xray diffraction by crystals. Derivation of Bragg equation.
Determination of crystal structure of NaCl, and CsCl (Laue’s method and powder method).
V Colloidal State 6 Hrs
Definition of colloids, classification of colloids. Solids in liquids (sols): properties – kinetic, optical and electrical; stability of colloids, protective action, Hardy-Schulze law, gold number.Liquids in liquids (emulsions): types of emulsions, preparation. Emulsifier. Liquids in solids (gels): classification.
Preparation and properties, inhibition general applications of colloids.
VI Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis 13 Hrs
Chemical kinetics and its scope, rate of a reaction, factors influencing the rate of a reaction – concentration, temperature, pressure, solvent, light catalyst. Concentration dependence of rates, mathematical characteristics of simple chemical reactions – zero order, first order, second order, pseudo order, half life and mean life. Determination of the order of reaction – differential method, method of integration, method of half life period and isolation method. Radioactive decay as a first order phenomenon. Experimental methods of chemical kinetics: conductometric, potentiometric, optical methods, polarimetry and spectrophotometer. Theories of chemical kinetical kinetics: effect of temperature on rate of reaction, Arrhenius equation, concept of activation energy, Simple collision theory based on hard sphere model. Transition state theory (equilibrium hypothesis). Expression for the rate constant based on equilibrium constant and thermodynamic aspects. Catalysis, characteristics of catalysed reactions, classification of catalysis, miscellaneous examples.
60 Hrs (2 Hrs/week),
Max. Marks: 50
I Inorganic qualitative analysis (preferably semi-micro) :
Inorganic mixtures containing cations, anions and combination of anions, and interfering anions. Total number of cations and anions in a mixture shall be six.
II Inorganic quantitative analysis-volumetric exercises:
(i) Acidimetry-alkalimetry and redox titrations including iodometry.
(ii) Hardness of water by EDTA methods.
(iii) Available chlorine in bleaching powder.
III Physical experiments based on surface tension and viscosity.
IV Pre-lab study and demonstrative execises:
(i) General awareness of laboratory items, hazardous chemicals, and safety measures.
(ii) Errors, significant figures and lab-report writing.
(iii) Demonstrative exercise viz. shapes of molecules threedimensional representation, R&S, E&Z configurations, configurat
ional and conformational study with the help of models.
Students are expected to perform all the above exercises. One exercise each out of mixture analysis volumetric analysis and physical experiments shall be given in the examination.
Distribution of marks will be as follows:
*(i)Mixture of analysis (six radicals) 15
(ii) Volumetric analysis 12
(iii) Physical experiment 10
**(iv) Viva-voice 05
(v) Annual record 08
* Full credit of marks shall be given upto 0.5% error after which for each 0.1 error, two marks shall be deducted.
** Viva-voice for ex-student shall carry 13 marks
1. The annual work of the candidate evaluated periodicially should be carefully assessed. A total of minimum 16 exercises are expected be carried out during the session to get full credit of marks in the annual record. If however, the total number of experiments done is less than 16, each experiment done shall be evaluated for half mark. A record of the same should be maintained in the department/college as an official record.
2. Less than zero mark should not be awarded.
3. The total number of candidates to be examined per batch in the
practical shall not be more than 60.
B.Sc. Part - II
Inorganic Chemistry 60 Hrs (2 Hrs/week),
Max. Marks: 50
I Chemistry of Elements of First Transition Series 10 Hrs Characteristic properties of d-block elements. Properties of the
elements of the first transition series, their binary compounds and complexes illustrating relative stability of their oxidation states, coordination number and geometry.
II Chemistry of Elements of Second and Third
Transition Series 10 Hrs
General characteristics, comparative treatment with their 3danalogues in respect of ionic radii. Oxidation states, magnetic behaviour, spectral properties and stereochemistry
III Oxidation and Reduction 10 Hrs
Use of redox potential data- analysis of redox cycle, redox stability stability in water – Frost, Latimar and Pourbaix diagrams. Principles involved in the extraction of the elements.
IV Coordination Compounds 10 Hrs
Werener’s coordination theory and its experimental verification, effective atomic number concept, cheleates, nomenclature of coordination compounds, isomerism in coordination compounds, valence bond theory of transition metal complexes
V Chemistry of Lanthanide Elements 6 Hrs
Electronic structure, oxidation states and ionic radii and lanthanide contraction, complex formation, occurrence and isolation, lanthanide compounds.
VI Chemistry of Actinides 4 Hrs
General features and chemistry of actinides, chemistry of separation of Np, Pu and Am from U, similarities between the later actinides and the later lanthanides.
VII Acids and Bases 6 Hrs
Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, the Lux-Flood, solvent system and Lewis concepts of acids and bases.
VIII Non-aqueous Solvents 6 Hrs
Physical properties of a solvent, types of solvent and their general characteristics, reactions in non-aqueous solvents with reference to liquid NH3 and liquid SO2.
Paper - II
60 Hrs (2 Hrs/week),
Max. Marks: 50
I Electromagnetic Spectrum: Absorption Spectra 10 Hrs Ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy – absorption laws (Beer- Lambert law). Molar absoptivity, presentation and analysis of UV spectra, types of electronic transitions, effect of conjugation. Concept of chromophore and auxochrome. Bathochromic, hypsochromic hyperchromic and hypochromic shifts UV spectra of conjugated enes and enones. Infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy – molecular vibrations, Hooke’s law, selection rules, intensity and position of IR bands, measurement of IR spectrum, fingerprint region characteristic absorptions of various functional groups and interpretation of IR spectra of simple organic
II. Alcohols 6 Hrs
Classification and nomenclature.
Monohydric alcohols – nomenclature, methods of formation by reduction of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and esters. Hydrogen bonding. Acidic nature, Reactions of alcohols. Dihydric alcohols – nomenclature, methods of formation, chemical reactions of vicina glycols, oxidative cleavage [Pb(OAc)4 and pinacol-pinacolone rearrangement. Trihydric alcoholsnomenelature and methods of formation, chemical reactions of
III. Phenols 6 Hrs
Nomenclature, structure and bonding. Preparation of phenols, physical properties and acidic character. Comparative acidic strengths of alcohols and phenols, reasonance stabilization of phenoxide ion. Reactions of phenols – electrophilic aromatic substitution acylation and carboxylation. Mechanisms of Fries rearrangement, Claisen rearrangement Gatterman synthesis, Hauben-Hoesch reaction, Lederer-Manasse reaction and Reimer-
IV Ethers and Eposides 3 Hrs
Nomenclature of ethers and methods of their formation, physical properties. Chemical reactions – cleavage and autoxidation, Ziesel’s method. Synthesis of epoxides. Acid and base-catalyzed ring opening of epoxides, orientation of epoxide ring opening, reactions of Grignard and organolithium reagents with epoxides.
V Aldehydes and Ketones 14 Hrs
Nomenclature and structure of the carbonyl group. Synthesis of aldehydes and ketones with particular reference to the synthesis of aldehydes from acid chlorides, synthesis of aldehydes and ketones using 1.3-dithiaes, synthesis of ketones from nitriles and from carboxylic acids. Physical properties. Mechanism of nucleophilic additions to carbonyl group with particular emphais on benzoin, aldol, Perkin and Knoevenagel condensations. Condensation with ammonia and its derivaties. Wittig reaction. Mannich reaction.
Use of acetals as protecting group. Oxidation of aldehydes, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of ketones, Cannizzaro reaction, MPV, Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, LiAlH4 and NaBH4 reductions. Halogenation of enolizable ketones. An introduction to a.b unsaturated aldehydes and ketones.
VI Carboxylic Acids 6 Hrs
Nomenclature, structure and bonding, physical properties, acidity of carboxylic acids, effects of subsituents on acid strength. Preparation of carboxylic acids. Reactions of carboxylic acids.
Hell-volhard-Zelinsky reaction. Synthesis of acid chiorides, esters and amides. Reduction of carboxylic acids. Mechanism of decarboxylation. Methods of formation and chemical reactions of halo acids. Hydroxy acids; malic, tartaric and citric acids. Methods of formation and chemical reactions of unsaturated monocarboxylic acids. Dicarboxylic acids: methods of formation and effect of heat and dehydrating agents.
VII Carboxylic Acid Derivatives 3 Hrs
Structure and nomenclature of acid chlorides, esters, amides (urea) and acid anhydrides. Relative stability of acyl derivatives. Physical properties, interconversion of acid derivatives by nucleophilic acyl substitution. Preparation of carboxylic acid derivatves, chemical reactions. Mechanisms of esterification and hydrolysis (acidic and basic).
VIII Organic Compounds of Nitrogn 12 Hrs
Preparation of nitroalkanes and nitroarenes. Chemical reactions of nitroalkanes Mechanisms of nucleophilic substitution in
nitroarenes and their reductions in acidic neutral and alkaline media. Picric acid. Halonitroarenes; reactivity, Structure and nomenclature of amines, physical properties stereochemistry of amines. Separation of a mixture of primary, secondary and tertiary amines. Structural features effecting basicity of amines. Amine salts as phase-transfer catalysts. Preparation of alkyl and aryl amiens (reduction of nitro compounds, nitriles) reductive amination of aldehydic and ketonic compounds. Gabrielphthalimide reaction. Hofmann bromamide reaction. Reactions of amines, electrophilic aromatic substitution in aryl amines, reactions of amines with nitrous acid. Synthetic transformations of aryl diazonium salts, azo coupling.
Paper - III
60 Hrs (2 Hrs/week),
Max. Marks: 50
I Thermodynamics-I 12 Hrs
Definition of thermodynamic terms: system, surroundings etc.Types of systems, intensive and extensive properties. State and path functions and their differentials. Thermodynamic process. Concept of heat and work. First Law of Thermodynamics statement, definition of internal energy and enthalpy. Heat capacity, heat capacities at constant volume and pressure and their relationship. Joule’s law-Joule-Thomson coefficient and inversion temperature. Calculation of w.q. dU & dH for the expansion of ideal gases under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for reversible process. Thermochemistry: standard state, standard enthalpy of formation. Hess’s Law of heat summation and its applications.
Heat of reaction at constant pressure and at constant volume. Enthalpy of neutralization. Bond dissociation energy and its calculation from thermo-chemical data, temperature dependence of enthalpy. Kirchhoff’s equation.
II Thermodynamics-II 13 Hrs
Second law of thermodynamics: need for the law, different statements of the law, Carnol cycle and its efficiency, Carnot theorem. Thermodynamic scale of temperature. Concept of entropy, entropy as a state function, entropy as a function of V&T, entropy as a function of P & T, entropy change in physical change. Clausius inequality. Entropy as a criteria of spontaneity and equilibrium. Entropy change in ideal gases and mixing of gases. Third law of thermodynamics: Nernst heat theorem, statement and concept of residual entropy, evaluation of absolute entropy from heat capacity data Gibbs and Helmholtz functions: Gibbs function (G) and Helmholtz function (A) as thermodynamic quantities A & G as criteria for thermodynamic equilibrium and spontaneity, their advantage over entropy change. Variation of G and A with P, V and T
III. Chemical Equilibrium 5 Hrs
Equilibrium constant and free energy. Thermodynamic derivation of law of mass action Le-chatelier’s principle. Reaction isotherm and reaction isochore-Clapeyron equation and Clausius-Clapeyron equation, applications. IV Phase Equilibrium 10 Hrs Statement and meaning of the terms – phase, component and degree of freedom, derivation of Gibbs phase rule, phase equlibria of one component system – water CO2 and S Systems. Phase equilibria of two component system-solid-liquid equilibria, simple eutectic-Bi-Cd, Pb-Ag systems, desileverisation of lead. Solid solutions- compound formation with congruent melting point (Mg-Zn) and incongruent melting point, (NaCl-H2O), (FeCl3-H2O) and CuSO4-H2O) system, Freezing mixtures, acetone-dry ice Liquid-liquid mixtures-ideal liquid mixtures, Raoult’s and Henry’s law non-ideal system-azeotropes-HCl-H2O and ethanol-water systems. Partially miscible liquids – Phenol-water, trimethylamine-water, nicotine-water systems Lower and upper consolute temperature. Effect of impurity on consolute temperature. Immiscible liquids, steam distillation. Nernst distribution law-thermodynamic derivation, applications.
V Electrochemistry-I 10 Hrs
Electrical transport – conduction in metals and in electrolyte solutions, specific conductance and equivalent conductance, measurement of equivalent conductance, variation of equivalent and specific conductance with dilution. Migration of ions and Kohlrausch law, Arrhenius theory of electrolyte dissociation and its limitations, weak and strong electrolytes, Ostwald’s dilution law its uses and limitations Debye-Huckel-Onsager’s equation for strong electrolytes (elementary treatment only) Transport number, definition and determination by Hittorf method and moving boundary method. Applications of conductivity measurements: determination of degree of dissociation, determination of Ka of acids, determinationof solubility product of a sparingly soluble salt, conductometric titrations.
VI Electrochemistry-II 10 Hrs.
Types of reversible electrodes – gas-metal ion, metal-metal ion, metal-insoluble salt-anion and redox electrodes. Electrode reactions, Nernst equation, derivation of cell E.M.F. and single electrode potential, standard hydrogen electrode-reference electrodes-standard electrode potential, sign conventions, electrochemical series and its significance. Electrolytic and Galvanic cells – reversible and irreversible cells, conventional representation of electrochemical cells. EMF of a cell and its measurements. Computation of cell EMF. Calculation of thermodynamic quantities of cell reactions (DG, DH and K). polarization, over potential and hydrogen overvoltage. Concentration cell with and without transport, liqid junction potential, application of concentration cells, valency of ions, solubility product and activity coefficient potentiometric titrations. Definition of pH and pKa determination of pH using hydrogen, quinhydrone and glass electrodes, by potentiometric methods.
Buffers – mechanism of buffer action, Henderson-Hazel equation. Hydrolysis of salfts Corrosion-types, theories and methods of combating it.
Laboratory Course 60 Hrs (2 Hrs/week), Max. Marks: 50
I Inorganic quantitative analysis : gravimetric estimation of Ba2+, Zn++ , Fe3+, Ni2+ and Cu2+.
II Inorganic synthesis cuprous chloride, potash alum, chrome alum, ferrous oxalate, ferrous ammonium sulphate, tetramine copper (II)
sulphate and hexamine nickel (II) chloride. III Orgnic qualitative analysis: identification of organic compounds including calibration of thermometer, determination of mixed melting point, crystallization and decolourization. Students are expected to perform all the above exercises. One exercise each out of gravimetric estimation, inorganic synthesis and identification of organic compound shall be given in the examination. Distribution of marks will be as follows:
(i) *Gravimetric estimation 15
(ii) Inorganic synthesis 08
(iii) Identification of organic compounds 14
(iv) **Viva-voce 05
(v) Annual record 08
* Full credit of marks shall be given upto 0.5% error after which for each 0.1% error, 02 marks should be deducated.
** Viva-voice for ex-students shall carry 13 marks.
1. The annual work of the candidate evaluated periodically should be carefully assessed. A total of minimum 16 exercises are expected be carried out during the session to get full credit of marks in the annual record if, however, the total number of experiments done is less than 16each experiment done shall be evaluated for half mark. A record of the same should be maintained in the department/college, as an official record.
2. Less than zero mark should not be awarded.
3. The total number of candidates to be examined per batch in the practical shall not be more than 60.
B.Sc. Part - III
Paper I Inorganic Chemistry 60 Hrs (2 Hrs/week), Max. Marks: 50
I Hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB) 7 Hrs Classification of acids and bases as hard and soft. Pearson’s HSAB concept, acid-base strength and hardness and softness. Symbiosis, theoretical basis of hardness and softness, electronegativity and hardness and softness.
II Metal-ligand Bonding in Transition Metal Complexes 10 Hrs. Limitations of valence bond theory, an elementary idea of crystalfield theory, crystal field splitting in octahedral, tetrahedral and square planar complexes, factors affecting the crystal-field parameters.
III Magnetic Properties of Transition Metal Complexes 7 Hrs Types of magnetic behaviour, methods of determining magnetic susceptibility, spin-only formula. L-S coupling, correlation of μ s and μ eff values, orbial contribution to magnetic moments, application of magnetic moment data for 3d-metal complexes.
IV Electron Spectra of Transition Metal Complexes 7 Hrs Types of electronic transitions, selection rules for d-d transitions, spectroscopic ground states, spectrochemical series, Orgel-energy level diagram for d1 and d9 states, discussion of the electronic spectrum of [Ti(H2O)6]3+ complex ion.
V Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspect of Metal Complexes 5Hrs A brief outline of thermodynamic stability of metal complexes and factors affecting the stability, substitution reactions of square planar complexes.
VI Organometallic Chemistry 10 Hrs Definition, nomenclature and classification of organometallic compounds, Preparation, properties, bonding and applications of alkyls and aryls of Li, Al, Hg, Sn and Ti, a brief account of metalethylenic complexes and homogeneous hydrogenation, mononuclear carbony is and the nature of bonding in metal carbonyls.
VII Bioinorganic Chemistry 10 Hrs
Essential and trace elements in biological processes, metalloporphyrins with special reference to haemoglobin and myoglobin. Biological role of alkali and alkaline earth metal ions with special reference to Ca2+. Nitrogen fixation.
VII Silicones and Phosphazenes 4 Hrs Silicones and phosphazenes as examples of inorganic polymers, nature of bonding in triphosphazenes.
Paper II Organic Chemistry 60 Hrs (2 Hrs/week), Max. Marks: 50
I Spectroscopy 10 Hrs Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy Proton magnetic resonance (H’NMR) spectroscopy, nuclear shielding and deshielding, chemical shift and molecular structure, spin-spin splitting and coupling constants, areas of signals, interpretation of PMR spectra of simple organic molecules such as ethyl bromide, ethanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1,2-tribromoethane, ethyl acetate, toluene and acetophenone. Problems pertaining to the structure elucidation of simple organic compounds using UV, IR and PMR spectroscopic techniques.
II Organometallic Compounds 4 Hrs Organomagnesium compounds; the Grignard reagents-formation, structure and chemical reactions. Organozinc compound: formation and chemical reactions. Organolithium compounds: formation and chemical reactions.
III Organosulphur Compounds 4 Hrs
Nomenclature, structural features, Methods of formation and chemical reactions of thiols, thioethers, sulphonic acids,
sulphonamides and sulphaguanidine.
IV Heterocyclic Compounds 8 Hrs Introduction: Moleclar orbital pictue and aromatic characteristics of pyrrole, furan, thiophene and pyridine. Methods of synthesis and chemical reactions with particular emphasis on the mechanism of electrophilic substitution. Mechanism of nucleophilic substitution reactions in pyridine derivatives. Comparison of basicity of pyridine, piperidine and pyrrole. Introduction to condensed five and six- membered heterocycles. Preparation and reactions of indole, quinoline and isoquinoline with special reference to Fisher indole synthesis, Skraup synthesis and Bischler- Napieralski synthesis. Mechanism of electrophilic substitution reactions of indole, quinoline and isoquinoline.
V Organic Synthesis Via Enolates 6Hrs
Acidity of a -hydrogens, alkylation of diethyl malonate and ethyl acetoacetate. Synthesis of ethyl acetoacetate: the Claisen condensation. Keto-enol tautomerism of ethyl acetoacetate. Alkylation of 1,3-dithianes. Alkylation and acylation of enamines.
VI Carbohydrates 8 Hrs.
Classification and nomenclature. Monosaccharides, mechanism of osazone formation, interconversion of glucose and fructose, chain lengthening and chain shortening of aldoses. Configuration of monosaccharides. Erythro and threo diastereomers. Conversion of glucose into mannose. Formation of glycosides, ethers and esters, Determination of ring size of monosaccharides. Cyclic structure of D(+)-glucose. Mechanism of Mutarotation. Structures of ribose and deoxyribose. An introduction to disaccharides (maltose, sucrose and lactose) and polysaccharides (starch and cellulose) without involving structure determination.
VII Amino Acids, Peptides, Proteins and Nucleic Acids 6 Hrs
Classification, structure and stereochemistry of amino acids. Acidbase behavior, isoelectric point and electrophoresis. Preparation and reactions of a -amino acids. Structure and nomenclature of peptides and proteins. Classification of proteins. Peptide structure determination, end group analysis, selective hydrolysis of peptides. Classical peptide synthesis, solid-phase peptide synthesis. Structures of peptides and proteins. Levels of protein structure. Protein denaturation/renaturation. Nucleic acids: introduction. Constitutents of nucleic acids. Ribonucleosides and ribonucleotides. The double helical structure of DNA.
VIII Fats, Oils and Detergents 2 Hrs
Natural fats, edible and industrial oils of vegetable origin, common fatty acids, glycerides, hydrogenation of unsaturated oils. Saponification value, iodine value, acid value. Soaps, synthetic detergents, alkyl and aryl sulphonates.
IX Synthetic Polymes 4 Hrs.
Addition or chain-growth polymerization, Free radical vinyl polymerization, ionic inyl polymenzation Ziegler-Natta polymerization and vinyl polymers. Condensation or step growth polymerization. Polyesters, polyamides, phenol formaldehyde resins, urea formaldehyde resins, epoxy resins and polyurethanes. Natural and synthetic rubbers.
X Synthetic Dyes 8 Hrs
Colour and constitution (electronic concept). Classification of dyes. Chemistry and synthesis of Methyl orange, Congo red, Malachite green, Crystal Violet, phenolphthalein, Fluorescein, Alizarin and Indigo.
Paper III Physical Chemistry 60 Hrs (2 Hrs/week), Max. Marks: 50
I Elementary Quantum Mechanics 20 Hrs Black-body radiation, Planck’s radiation law, photoelectric effect,
heat capacity of solids, Bohr’s model of hydrogen atom (no derivation) and its defects, Compton effect. De Broglie hypothesis, the Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, Sinusoidal wave equation, Hamiltonian operator, Schrodinger wave equation and its importance, physical interpretation of the wave function, postulates of quantum mechanics, particle in a one dimensional box. Schrodinger wave equation for H-atom, separation into three equations (without derivation), quantum numbers and their importance, hydrogen like wave functions, radial wave functions, angular wave functions. Molecular orbital theory, basic ideas – criteria for forming M.O. from A.O. construction of M.O’s by LCAO –H2* ion, calculation of energy levels from wave functions, physical picture of bonding and antibonding wave functions, concept of * * s ,s ,p ,p orbitals and their characteristics. Hybrid orbitals – sp, sp2 sp3, calculation of coefficients of A.O.’s used in these hybrid orbitals. Introduction to valence bond model of H2, comparison of M.O. and V.B. models.
II Spectroscopy 20Hrs. Introduction: electromagnetic radiation, regions of the spectrum, basic features of different spectrometers, statement of the Bornoppenheimer approximation, degrees of freedom. Rotational Spectrum Diatomic molecules. Energy levels of a rigid rotor (semi-classical principles), selection rules, spectral intensity, distribution using population distribution (Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution) determination of bond length, qualitative description of non-rigid rotor, isotope effect. Vibrational Spectrum Infrared spectrum: Energy levels of simple harmonic oscillator, selection rules, pure vibrational spectrum, intensity, determination of force constant and qualitiative relation of force constant and bond energies, effect of anharmonic motion and isotope on the spectrum, idea of vibrational frequencies of different functional groups. Raman Spectrum: Concept of polarizability, pure vibrational and pure vibrational - Raman spectra of diatomic molecules, selection rules.
Concept of potential energy curves for bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals, qualitative description of selection rules and Franck-Condon principle. Qualitative description of s , p − and n M.O., their energy levels and the respective transitions.
III Photochemistry 8 Hrs.
Interaction of radiation with matter, difference between thermal and photochemical processes. Laws of photochemistry: Grothus – Drapper law, Stark – Einstein law, Jablonski diagram depicting various processes occurring in the excited state, qualitative description of fluorescence, phosphorescence, non-radiative processes (internal conversion, intersystem crossing), quantum yield, photosensitized reactions – energy transfer processes (simple examples).
IV Physical Properties and Molecular Structure 5 Hrs
Optical activity, polarization – (Clausius- Mossotti equation), orientation of dipoles in an electric field, dipole moment, induced dipole moment, measurement of dipole moment-temperature method and refractivity method, dipole moment and structure of molecules, magnetic properties-paramagnetism, diamagnetism and ferromagnetics.
V Solutions, Dilute Solutions and Colligative Properties 7 Hrs
Ideal and non-ideal solutions, methods of expressing concentrations of solutions, activity and activity coefficient. Dilute solution, colligative poperties, Raoult’s law, relative lowering of vapour pressure molecular weight determination. Osmosis, law of osmotic pressure and its measurement, determination of molecular weight from osmotic pressure. Elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point, Thermodynamic derivation of relation between molecular weight and elevation in boiling point and depression in freezing point. Expermental methods for determining various colligative properties. Abnormal molar mass, degree of dissociation and association of solutes.