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Syllabus : Botony

Syllabus for B.Sc. Botany

B.Sc. I year

There will be 9 questions in each paper and candidate has to attempt only 5 questions. Q.1 will be compulsory based on units I - IV. Two questions will be set from each unit of which one question has to be attempted. All questions will carry equal marks.

Paper I: Diversity of Viruses, Bacteria, & Fungi

M.M. 50




History, nature and classification of Viruses, Bacteria and Fungi.


History of virology and bacteriology; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure (bacteria, mycoplasma and yeast); structure, classification and nature of viruses; structure (gram positive and gram negative) and classification (based on cell structure) of bacteria; classification, thallus organisation and reproduction in fungi; economic importance of fungi.


Viruses:Symptoms of virus infection in plants; transmission of plant viruses; genome organisation, replication of plant virus (tobacco mosaic virus); techniques in plant viruses - purification, serology and electron microscopy; structure and multiplication of bacteriophages; structure and multiplication of viroids.


Bacteria:Nutritional types of bacteria (based on carbon and energy sources), metabolism in different nutritional types (basics only) and nitrogen cycle; bacterial genome and plasmids; bacterial cell division, variability in bacteria - mutation, principles of genetic recombination; techniques in sterilisation, bacterial culture and staining; economic importance.


Fungi:The characteristics and life cycles of the following:

Mastigomycotina: Albugo, Pythium,; Ascomycotina: Saccharomyces, Aspergillus; Ascobolus;

Basidiomycotina : Ustilago, Puccinia, Polyporus, Agaricus; Deuteromycotina: Fusarium.

Paper II - Diversity of Algae, Lichens, and Bryophytes

M.M. 50


General characters. Range of thallus organization, classification, ultrastructure of eukaryotic algal cell and cyanobacterial cell, economic importance of algae. Lichens, classification, thallus organization, reproduction, physiology and role in environmental pollution.

Unit-II The characteristics and life cycles of the following:-

Cyanophyta Microcystis, Oscillatoria :Chlorophyta Volvox, Hydrodictyon, Oedogonium, Coleochaete, Chara; Bacillariophyta Navicula; Xanthopyta Vaucheria; Phaeophyta; Ectocarpus

Rhodophyta Polysiphonia

Unit – III

Bryophytes, general characters, classification, reproduction and affinities. Gametophytic and soporophytic organization of:

Bryopsida: Pogonatum; Anthocerotopsida: Anthoceros

Unit - IV

Gametophytic and sporophytic organization of Hepaticopsida : Riccia, Marchantia.

Paper III – Diversity of Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and elementary Palaeobotany

M.M. 50


Unit - I



General features, classification, stellar system and its evolution. Comparative study of

morphology, anatomy, development, vegetative and reproductive systems of following:

Lycopsida - Lycopodium, Selaginella;Psilopsida- Rhynia



Unit – II


General and comparative account of gametophytic and sprophytic system in


Filicopsida -Pteridium, Nephrolepis. Marsilea.


Heterospory and seed habit.



Unit - III


Gymnosperms: General characters, classification. Comparative study of

morphology, anatomy,

development of vegetative and reproductive parts in:


Cycadales: Cycas



Unit –IV

Study of morphology, anatomy, development and reproductive parts in:

Coniferales Pinus ; Gnetales - Ephedra

Affinities and relationship of Gymnosperms, evolutionary significance.

Elementary Palaeobotany: general account, types of fossils, methods of fossilization and geological time scale.

B.Sc. II year


Paper I:

Diversity of Angiosperms: Systematics, Development & Reproduction

M.M. 50

Paper II:

Cytology, Genetics, Evolution & Ecology

M.M. 50

Paper III:

Plant Physiology and Biochemistry

M.M. 50

(There will be 9 questions in each paper and candidate has to attempt only 5 questions. Q.1 will be compulsory based on units I - IV. Two questions will be set from each unit of which one question has to be attempted. All questions will carry equal marks)

Practicals: Based on papers I-III

M.M. 50

Paper - I: Diversity of Angiosperms: Systematics, Development & Reproduction

M.M. 50

Unit - 1


Principles of classification, nomenclature; comparative study of different classification systems, viz. Linnaeus, Bentham & Hooker, Engler & Prantl, Hutchinson, and Cronquist. Herbarium techniques and important Botanic Gardens.

Unit – II Taxonomic study of following families and their economic importance:

Dicots; Nymphaeaceae, Nelumbonaceae. Ranunculaceae, Malvaceae, Bombacaceae, Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceac, Rosaceae, Leguminosacae, Myrtaceae, Rutaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cuscutaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Acanthaceae, Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Amaranthaceae.

Monocots: Cyperaceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae. Liliaceae.

Unit - III

External morphology of vegetative and floral parts; modifications – phyllodes, cladodes, and phylloclades. Meristems-kinds study of tissue system - epidermal, ground, and vascular.

Anatomy of roots, stems, and leaves. Cambium - its function and anomalies in roots and stems.

Unit – IV

Structure and development of male and female gametophytes – microsporogenesis microgametogenesis, megasporogenesis, and megagametogenesis, embryo sac types. Double fertilization development of embryo, endosperm development and its morphological nature, apomixis and polyembryony.

Paper II: Cytology, Genetics, Evolution & Ecology

M.M. 50

Unit - I


Cell structure, cell organelles, nucleus, chromosome structure, nucleosome and solenoid model, salivary gland, lampbrush and B chromosomes.

Cell division – mitosis, meiosis; their significance, chromosomal aberrations

Unit- II

Genetics, laws of inheritance; gene interaction; linkage and; cytoplasmic inheritance; sex determination.


Mutation- spontaneous, induced mutations, molecular mechanism and evolutionary significance; polyploidy- origin, kinds and role in evolution. Evidences and theories of evolution.

Unit - IV

Ecology, relation with other disciplines. Plant types: Hydrophytes - Hydrilla, Eichhorina, Nymphaea, Typha. Xerophytes – Nerium, Casuarina, Saccharum, Begonia. Plant succession – xeroseres, hydroseres. Ecosystems - concept, basic types, components, & functioning.

Paper III - Plant Physiology and Biochemistry.

M.M. 5O

Unit - I


Plant and water relationship, colligative properties of water, free energy concept. Water uptake, conduction, transpiration, mechanism and its regulation by environmental variables.

Mineral nutrition : Macro, and micronutrients, their role, deficiency and toxicity symptoms, plant culture practices, mechanism of ion uptake and translocation.

Unit - III

Nitrogen metabolism : atmospheric nitrogen fixation, nitrogen cycle, nitrogen assimilation,

Growth: general aspects of phytohormones, inhibitors-auxins. kinetin, gibberellins, and ethylene: action and their application; photoperiodisin and vernalization. Germination, growth movements, parthenocarpy, abscission and senescence.

Unit - IV

Biomolecules : Classification, properties and biological role of carbohydrates, Protein and lipids. Chemistry of

nucleic acids.

Discovery and nomenclature. Characteristics of enzymes, concepts of holoenzyme, apoenzyme, coenzyme and

cofactors. Regulation of enzyme activity, Mechanism of action.

B.Sc. III year


Paper I:

Plant resource utilisation, Palynology and Biostatistics

M.M. 75

Paper II:

Molecular biology & biotechnology

M.M. 75

Paper III:

Environment Botany and Plant Pathology

M.M. 75

(There will be 9 questions in each paper and candidate has to attempt only 5 questions. Q.1 will be compulsory based on Units I - IV. Two questions will be set from each unit of which one question has to be attempted. All

questions will carry equal marks)


Practicals: Based on papers I-III

M.M. 75

Paper I Plant Resource utilization, Palynology and Biostatistics

75 marks

Unit I

Centres of diversity of plants, origin of crop plants. Domestication and introduction of crop plants. Concepts of sustainable development; cultivation, production and uses of - wheat, rice, legumes, sugarcane

Unit II

A general account of plants yielding oils, spices, beverages. An account of major fiber, medicinal, petro, plants of Uttar Pradesh.

Unit III Conservation of plants resources for agriculture and forestry.

In situ conservation santuaries, national parks, biosphere reserves, wetlands, ,mangroves. Exsitu conservation; botanical gardens, field gene banks, seed banks, cryobanks.



Unit- IV

Introduction to biotechnology, recombinant DNA technology, plant tissue culture, methods of gene transfer, transgenic plants, biotechnology and healthcare, microbial and environmental biotechnology.

Paper III- Environmental botany and plant pathology

M.M. 75

Unit - I

Mineral resources of planet earth, Conservation of mineral resources. soils; types, properties and various problem soils; water; the source of water, physico-chemical and biological properties of water. Sustainable management of water; energy resources in India; Forests: global forest wealth, importance of forests, deforestation.

Unit - II

Environmental pollution : air, water, soil, radioactive, thermal and noise pollutions, their sources, effects and control. (greenhouse effect, ozone depletion and acid rain). CO2 enrichment and climate change.

Unit - III

Biodiversity and Phytogeography : biotic communities and populations, their characteristics and population dynamics. Natural vegetation of India, static and dynamic plant geography, basic principles governing geographical distribution of plants, endemism.

Unit - IV

Etiology of viral, bacterial, fungal and insect-pest diseases: mosaic diseases on tobacco, and cucumber, yellow vein mosaic of bhindi; citrus canker, potato scab, little leaf of brinjal; damping off of seedlings late blight of potato, red rot of sugarcane

Integrated pest disease management


1.B.Sc. I : Provided syllabus B.Sc. I was read & discussed thoroughly and it has been approved with minor changes. A copy of the syllabus provided with minor corrections is being submitted herewith.

2.B.Sc. II: Provided syllabus of B.Sc. II was also discussed critically & the following changes have been made;

Unit –I: approved as such

Unit-II: Eight families have been deleted, while one family e.i. Asclipi has been included Unit-III: approved as such

Unit-IV: In addition to the course mentioned Unit IVth of (Palynology) of Paper II (B.Sc.-III) have been added as palynology in more befitting at this place.

Paper II: The title of paper is new; Plant Physiology:- This paper has been critically analysed & now it has been fractionated in four units:

The provided syllabus has included biochemistry in paper III which has been shifted to B.Sc. III paper II, become chemistry is more relevant with molecular biology.

B.Sc. III:

The names of papers have been revised as per need & scope of the subject.

Paper I: Plant resource utilization and Biostatics

Paper II: Molecular biology and biochemistry

Paper III: Environment botany and Biochemistry

Paper Ist: Units I, II, III hae been retained as such while a part of unit (IV) e.g. Palyonology- has been shifted to B.Sc. II paper Ist unit IV. E.g. Pollen morphology is closely related to that part.

Paper IInd : Unit I & II have been retained as such while unit 3rd & IV have been shifted to paper III. In place of these units IV of paper III class B.Sc. II (i.e. Biochemistry) has been included at the place of unit III & Unit IV.

Paper III: Unit I, II & III have been maintained as such while unit IV has been replaced with unit 3rd & uth of paper II (B.Sc. III).

Note: Syllabus of B.Sc. I comprising of paper I, II & III is being submitted with minor necessary corrections. It may be considered in the nearly by academic counsil for immediate implementations from the current session. i.e. 2011-12.